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Mitral Valve Stenosis​

Mitral Valve Stenosis:  Symptoms, Causes and Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatments | National Heart Centre Singapore

Mitral Valve Stenosis​ - What it is

​Mitral valve stenosis occurs when the heart's mitral valve leaflets thicken, stiffen or fuse causing the opening to narrow. As a result, the valve is unable to properly open, blocking blood flow into the main pumping chamber of the heart. 

Mitral Valve Stenosis​ - Symptoms

Signs of mitral valve stenosis include:
  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness
  • Swollen feet or legs
  • Heart palpitations
  • Heavy coughing
  • Chest discomfort or pain
  • Migraine
  • Speaking difficulty or other symptoms of stroke

Other symptoms of mitral valve stenosis, which may be discovered during a doctor’s further examination, include:
  • Heart murmur
  • Arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms)
  • Fluid build-up in the lungs

Mitral Valve Stenosis​ - How to prevent?

Mitral Valve Stenosis​ - Causes and Risk Factors

The causes of mitral valve stenosis include:
  • Calcium deposits: Calcium deposits can build up around the ring at the mitral valve due to old age.
  • Rheumatic fever: Rheumatic fever can damage the mitral valve by causing the flaps to fuse or thicken, which might not have signs for many years.
  • Other causes: In unusual cases, babies are born with a narrowed mitral valve. Other rare causes are some autoimmune diseases, e.g rheumatoid arthritis, and radiation to the chest.
Complications

As with other heart valve problems, mitral valve stenosis will strain the heart and decrease blood flow, potentially leading to other complications such as:

Mitral Valve Stenosis​ - Diagnosis

Diagnostic tests to diagnose mitral valve stenosis include:
These tests can help your doctor differentiate mitral valve stenosis from other heart conditions. The tests will also aid in determining the cause of mitral valve stenosis and check if the valve can be repaired.

Mitral Valve Stenosis​ - Treatments

Patients with mild to moderate mitral valve stenosis and no symptoms might not need immediate treatment. Instead, the doctor will monitor the mitral valve to check if the condition worsens.

Medications

Currently, there is no medication available that can correct a mitral valve defect. However, certain medicines can help reduce symptoms of mitral valve stenosis. These medication include:
  • Antibiotics (recommended before any invasive procedure)
  • Anti-arrhythmics
  • Blood thinners (anticoagulants)
  • Beta blockers or calcium channel blockers
  • Diuretics
Treatment

For some cases, valve repair or valve replacement is necessary. The treatment options include surgical methods (mitral valve repair or replacement) or less -invasive methods such as percutaneous transmitral commissurotomy (PTMC).

Mitral Valve Stenosis​ - Preparing for surgery

Mitral Valve Stenosis​ - Post-surgery care

Mitral Valve Stenosis​ - Other Information

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