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Clinical Appointments

  • Senior Consultant Department of Cardiology National Heart Centre SingaporeNational Heart Centre Singapore
  • Director of Electrophysiology and Pacing National Heart Centre SingaporeNational Heart Centre Singapore
  • Visiting Consultant Cardiology Service KK Women's and Children's HospitalKK Women's and Children's Hospital

Academic Appointments

  • Academic Vice Chair, Clinical Services SingHealth Duke-NUS Cardiovascular Sciences Academic Clinical Programme


Clinical Associate Professor Ching Chi Keong is a Senior Consultant with the Department of Cardiology and the Director of Electrophysiology and Pacing at the National Heart Centre Singapore (NHCS). He is also the Chief Data and Digital Officer at NHCS. He is the Academic Vice Chair, Clinical Services of the SingHealth Duke-NUS Cardiovascular Sciences Academic Clinical Programme. His sub-specialty interest is in cardiac electrophysiology and pacing.

Clin Assoc Prof Ching graduated with his Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery from the National University of Singapore in 1995. He subsequently obtained the Membership of the Royal College of Physicians (UK) in 2001 and the Certificate of Specialist Accreditation (Cardiology) in 2004.

Clin Assoc Prof Ching completed his clinical fellowship in Cardiac Electrophysiology and Pacing at the Cleveland Clinic, USA, in 2007. During the fellowship, he acquired competency to perform catheter ablation of complex arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation and tachycardia as well as ventricular tachycardia. He received in-depth training in implantation and the optimisation of pacemakers, internal defibrillators and cardiac resynchronisation therapy devices.

In recognition of his professional and research achievements, Clin Assoc Prof Ching was inducted as a Fellow of the ASEAN Society of Cardiology, Fellow of the Academy of Medicine (Singapore), and Fellow of the Heart Rhythm Society, USA.

Clin Assoc Prof Ching also teaches at the Duke-NUS Medical School as a Clinical Associate Professor.


  • FHRS
  • FAMS (Cardiology)
  • MRCP (UK) 2001
  • MBBS National University of Singapore 1995

Professional Appointments and Committee Memberships

  • Senior Consultant, Department of Cardiology, National Heart Centre Singapore, Present
  • Director, Electrophysiology and Pacing, National Heart Centre Singapore, Present
  • Academic Vice Chair, Clinical Services of the SingHealth Duke-NUS Cardiovascular Sciences Academic Clinical Programme, June 2023 - Present
  • Chief Data and Digital Officer, NHCS, July 2022 - Present
  • Committee Member, International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR), 2012 - Present  
  • Chairman, Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS) subcommittee, National Resuscitation Council Singapore, 2011
  • Member, National Resuscitation Council Singapore, 2011 - Present
  • Member, Singapore Cardiac Society, 2010 - Present
  • Fellow, Heart Rhythm Society (USA)
  • Fellow, ASEAN Society of Cardiology, 2010 - Present
  • Editorial Board Member, Journal of Arrhythmia, 2009 - Present
  • Reviewer, Singapore Medical Journal, 2007 - Present


  • Human Manpower Development Fellowship Scholarship, Singapore, 2005
  • Second Prize (Poster Competition), American College of Cardiology - Ohio Chapter 16th Annual Meeting, 2006
  • Singapore Health Service Quality - Bronze Award, 2009
  • Singapore Medical Journal (SMJ) Best Research Paper Award - Second Prize, 2010
  • Singapore Health Service Quality - Silver Award, 2012
  • Singapore Health Service Quality - Gold Award, 2014

Research Interests


  • Nuclear Cardiology in Singapore: A Review. Ching CK, Keng F, Chua TSJ. Annals Am of Med Singapore. 461-466; Vol 33 No.4 Jul 2004
  • ECG case- Asymptomatic patient with ST-segment elevation. Ching CK, Teo WS. Singapore Med J 2004 Vol 45(11):538-541
  • Congenital long QT syndromes: clinical features, molecular genetics and genetic testing. Ching CK, Tan EC. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2006 May;6(3):365-374.
  • Intrapartum maternal sinus bradycardia with spontaneous resolution following delivery. Devandra K, Ching CK, Tan LK, Tan HK, Yu SL. Singapore Med J. 2006 Nov;47(11):971-4
  • Impact of left ventricular epicardial and biventricular pacing on ventricular repolarisation in normal heart individuals and patients with congestive heart failure. Bai R, Yang XY, Song Y, Lin L, Lu JG, Ching CK, Pu J, Kam R, Hsu LF, Zhang CT, Teo WS, Wang L. Europace. 2006 Nov;8(11): 1002-10. 
  • Review Article: Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation. Ching CK, Dimpi Patel, Andrea Natale.  J Arrhythmia 2007 Vol 23(2): 85-101.
  • Electrocardiographical case. Elderly man with acute breathlessness. Sim D, Chia S, Ching CK, Chua T. Singapore Med J. 2007 May;48(5):475-7.
  • Mutation Screening in KCNQ1, HERG, KCNE1, KCNE2 and SCN5A Genes in a Long QT Syndrome Family. Koo SH, Teo WS, Ching CK, Chan SH, Lee EJ. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2007 Jun;36(6):394-5. 
  • Radiofrequency ablation of atypical atrial flutter after cardiac surgery or atrial fibrillation ablation: A randomized comparison of open-irrigation-tip and 8-mm-tip catheters. (Heart Rhythm. 2007 Aug 1; See acknowledgment).
  • Remote magnetic navigation: human experience in pulmonary vein ablation. Di Biase L, Fahmy TS, Patel D, Bai R, Civello K, Wazni OM, Kanj M, Elayi CS, Ching CK, Khan M, Popova L, Schweikert RA, Cummings JE, Burkhardt JD, Martin DO, Bhargava M, Dresing T, Saliba W, Arruda M, Natale A. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Aug 28;50(9):868-74.
  • Low Incidence of Left Atrial or Left Atrial Appendage Thrombus in Patients with Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation and Normal EF Who Present for Pulmonary Vein Antrum Isolation Procedure. Khan MN, Usmani A, Noor S, Elayi S, Ching CK, Biase LD, Patel D, Burkhardt JD, Cummings J, Schweikert R, Saliba W, Natale A. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol Feb 2008: 1-3
  • Esophageal Luminal Temperature Measurement Underestimates Esophageal Tissue Temperature During Radiofrequency Ablation Within the Canine Left Atrium: Comparison Between 8 mm Tip and Open Irrigation Catheters. Cummings JE, Barrett CD, Litwak KN, Di Biase L, Chowdhury P, Oh S, Ching CK, Saliba WI, Schweikert RA, Burkhardt JD, De Marco S, Armaganijan L, Natale A.  J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2008 Mar 26
  • Pulmonary vein calcification by EBCT in patients with drug refractory nonvalular atrial fibrillation. Adams J, Natale A, Elayi CS, Di Biase L, Martin DO, Beheiry S, Hao S, Hongo R, Ching CK. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2008 May 28.
  • Mortality of heart failure patients after cardiac resynchronization therapy: Identification of predictors. Bai R, Biase LD, Elayi C, Ching CK, Barrett C, Phillips K, Lim P, Patel D, Callahan T, Martin DO, Arruda M, Schweikert RA, Saliba W, Wilkoff B, Natale A. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2008 Jul 3.
  • Relationship Between Catheter Forces, Lesion Characteristics, "Popping," and Char Formation: Experience with Robotic Navigation System. DI Biase L, Natale A, Barrett C, Tan C, Elayi CS, Ching CK, Wang P, Al-Ahmad A, Arruda M, Burkhardt JD, Wisnoskey BJ, Chowdhury P, DE Marco S, Armaganijan L, Litwak KN, Schweikert RA, Cummings JE. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2008 Nov 11.
  • Ablation for longstanding permanent atrial fibrillation: results from a randomized study comparing three different strategies. Elayi CS, Verma A, Di Biase L, Ching CK, Patel D, Barrett C, Martin D, Rong B, Fahmy TS, Khaykin Y, Hongo R, Hao S, Pelargonio G, Dello Russo A, Casella M, Santarelli P, Potenza D, Fanelli R, Massaro R, Arruda M, Schweikert RA, Natale A. Heart Rhythm. 2008 Dec;5(12):1658-64.
  • Implantation of lumenless pacing leads at the inter-atrial septum and right ventricular outflow tract with deflectable catheter-sheath. Bai R, Kam R, Ching CK, Hsu LF, Teo WS.  J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2008 Dec;28(6):639-44. 
  • Atrial fibrillation ablation strategies for paroxysmal patients: randomized comparison between different techniques. Di Biase L, Elayi CS, Fahmy TS, Martin DO, Ching CK, Barrett C, Bai R, Patel D, Khaykin Y, Hongo R, Hao S, Beheiry S, Pelargonio G, Russo AD, Casella M, Santarelli P, Potenza D, Fanelli R, Massaro R, Wang P, Al-Ahmad A, Arruda M, Themistoclakis S, Bonso A, Rossillo A, Raviele A, Schweikert RA, Burkhardt DJ, Natale A. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2009 Apr;2(2):113-9.
  • Transiliac ICD implantation: defibrillation vector flexibility produces consistent success. Ching CK, Elayi CS, Di Biase L, Barrett CD, Martin DO, Saliba WI, Wazni O, Kanj M, Burkhardt DJ, Schweikert RA, Wilkoff BL. Heart Rhythm. 2009 Jul;6(7):978-83
  • Atrial fibrillation termination as a procedural endpoint during ablation in long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation. Elayi CS, Di Biase L, Barrett C, Ching CK, Aly MA, Lucciola M, Bai R, Horton R, Fahmy TS, Verma A, Khaykin Y, Shah J, Morales G, Hongo R, Hao S, Beheiry S, Arruda M, Schweikert RA, Cummings J, Burkhardt JD, Wang P, Al-Ahmad A, Cauchemez B, Gaita F, Natale A. Heart Rhythm. 2010 Feb 1.
  • Novel electrogram device with web-based service centre for ambulatory ECG monitoring. Tan BY, Ho KL, Ching CK, Teo WS. Singapore Med J. 2010 Jul;51(7):565-9
  • Apixaban in patients with atrial fibrillation. Connolly SJ, Eikelboom J, Joyner C, Diener HC, Hart R, Golitsyn S, Flaker G, Avezum A, Hohnloser SH, Diaz R, Talajic M, Zhu J, Pais P, Budaj A, Parkhomenko A, Jansky P, Commerford P, Tan RS, Sim KH, Lewis BS, Van Mieghem W, Lip GY, Kim JH, Lanas-Zanetti F, Gonzalez-Hermosillo A, Dans AL, Munawar M, O'Donnell M, Lawrence J, Lewis G, Afzal R, Yusuf S; AVERROES Steering Committee and Investigators. N Engl J Med. 2011 Mar 3;364(9):806-17
  • Is there an Association Between External Cardioversions and Long Term Mortality and Morbidity - Insights from the AFFIRM Study. Elayi CS, Whitbeck MG, Charnigo R, Shah J, Macaulay TE, Morales G, Gurley JC, Kakavand B, Thal S, Ching CK, Khaykin Y, Verma A, Barrett C, Bai R, Di Biase L, Patwardhan A, Moliterno DJ, Natale A.  Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2011 Apr 21
  • Prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy on an electrocardiogram-based pre-participation screening programme in a young male South-East Asian population: results from the Singapore Armed Forces Electrocardiogram and Echocardiogram screening protocol. Ng CT, Chee TS, Ling LF, Lee YP, Ching CK, Chua TS, Cheok C, Ong HY. Europace. 2011 Apr 12
  • Successful ablation of sinus node reentrant tachycardia using remote magnetic navigation system. Malik AK, Ching CK, Liew R, Chong DT, Teo WS. Europace. 2011 Sep 4
  • Dronedarone in High-Risk Permanent Atrial Fibrillation. Connolly SJ, Camm AJ, Halperin JL, Joyner C, Alings M, Amerena J, Atar D, Avezum A, Blomström P, Borggrefe M, Budaj A, Chen SA, Ching CK, Commerford P, Dans A, Davy JM, Delacrétaz E, Di Pasquale G, Diaz R, Dorian P, Flaker G, Golitsyn S, Gonzalez-Hermosillo A, Granger CB, Heidbüchel H, Kautzner J, Kim JS, Lanas F, Lewis BS, Merino JL, Morillo C, Murin J, Narasimhan C, Paolasso E, Parkhomenko A, Peters NS, Sim KH, Stiles MK, Tanomsup S, Toivonen L, Tomcsányi J, Torp-Pedersen C, Tse HF, Vardas P, Vinereanu D, Xavier D, Zhu J, Zhu JR, Baret-Cormel L, Weinling E, Staiger C, Yusuf S, Chrolavicius S, Afzal R, Hohnloser SH; the PALLAS Investigators. N Engl J Med. 2011 Nov 14
  • Prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in an unselected young male multi-ethnic South-East Asian population undergoing pre-participation cardiovascular screening: results of the Singapore Armed Forces Electrocardiogram and Echocardiogram screening protocol. Ng CT, Ong HY, Cheok C, Chua TS, Ching CK. Europace. 2012 Feb
  • Apixaban versus aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation and previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack: a predefined subgroup analysis from AVERROES, a randomised trial. Diener HC, Eikelboom J, Connolly SJ, Joyner CD, Hart RG, Lip GY, O'Donnell M, Hohnloser SH, Hankey GJ, Shestakovska O, Yusuf S; AVERROES Steering Committee and Investigators. Lancet Neurol. 2012 Mar;11(3):225-31
  • Fragmented QRS complexes predict right ventricular dysfunction and outflow tract aneurysms in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Shanmugam N, Yap J, Tan RS, Le TT, Gao F, Chan JX, Chong D, Ho KL, Tan BY, Ching CK, Teo WS, Tan JL, Liew R.  Int J Cardiol. 2012 Apr 20
  • Clinical markers of organ dysfunction associated with increased 1-year mortality post-implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation. Chong D, Tan BY, Ho KL, Liew R, Teo WS, Ching CK. Europace. 2012 Jul 29
  • Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: understanding the new oral anticoagulants dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. Ru San Tan, Chan MY, Wee Siong Teo, Kok Foo Tang, Kheng Siang Ng, Lee SH, Chi Keong Ching. Thrombosis. 2012;2012:108983.
  • Pattern of coroner's autopsies at Health Sciences Authority, Singapore: a retrospective study (2009-2010). Wang M, Ching CK. Med Sci Law. 2012 Oct 5.
  • Syphilitic coronary artery ostial stenosis presenting with acute myocardial infarction. Choon Ta Ng, Chee Tang Chin, Chi Keong CHING. Heart. 2013 Feb;99(4):290.
  • Authors' response to the correspondence entitled 'too ill for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator?' Chong D, Tan BY, Ho KL, Teo WS, Ching CK. Europace. 2013 Aug;15(8):1226-7. 
  • Adenosine testing in atrial flutter ablation: unmasking of dormant conduction across the cavotricuspid isthmus and risk of recurrence. Morales GX, Macle L, Khairy P, Charnigo R, Davidson E, Thal S, Ching C, Lellouche N, Whitbeck M, Delisle B, Thompson J, DI Biase L, Natale A, Nattel S, Elayi CS. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2013 Sep;24(9):995-1001.
  • Coronary arteriovenous malformation presenting with acute myocardial infarction. Ng CT, Wong A, Cheah FK, Ching CK. Heart Asia. 2013 Jan 22;5(1)
  • Trends amongst implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients in a tertiary cardiac centre in Singapore from 2002 to 2011. Chong DT, Tan BY, Ho KL, Teo WS, Ching CK. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2013 Sep;42(9):480-2.
  • Coronary Sinus Ostial Atresia and Persistent Left- Sided Superior Vena Cava: Clinical Significance and Strategies for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy. PCY Lim, L Baskaran, KL Ho, WS Teo, CK Ching. Int J Angiol 2013;22:199–202.
  • Pacemaker failure due to loss of fluid seal in a patient with a 5/6mm pacemaker header port and a 5mm unipolar lead. Lim PC, Tan BY, Ho KL, Ching CK, Teo WS. Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J. 2013 Nov 15;13(6):217-20. eCollection 2013 Nov.
  • Predictors of mortality in acute heart failure: interaction between diabetes and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction. Go YY, Allen JC, Chia SY, Sim LL, Jaufeerally FR, Yap J, Ching CK, Sim D, Kwok B, Liew R. Eur J Heart Fail. 2014 Jun 5. doi: 10.1002/ejhf.119
  • Outcomes of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in a Southeast Asian cohort. Hoong CW, Lim CP, Gao F, Chen Q, Kawa LB, Ching CK, Sim DK. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2014 Jul 11. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25022929
  • Predictors of two-year mortality in Asian patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. Yap J, Sim D, Lim CP, Chia SY, Go YY, Jaufeerally FR, Sim LL, Liew R, Ching CK. Int J Cardiol. 2015 Jan 27;183C:33-38. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.01.063.
  • Does sex affect anticoagulant use for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation? The prospective global anticoagulant registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation. Lip GY, Rushton-Smith SK, Goldhaber SZ, Fitzmaurice DA, Mantovani LG, Goto S, Haas S, Bassand JP, Camm AJ, Ambrosio G, Janský P, Al Mahmeed W, Oh S, van Eickels M, Raatikainen P, Steffel J, Oto A, Kayani G, Accetta G, Kakkar AK; GARFIELD-AF Investigators. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2015 Mar;8(2 Suppl 1):S12-20. doi: 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.114.001556. Epub 2015 Feb 24.
  • Feedback to providers improves evidence-based implantable cardioverter-defibrillator programming and reduces shocks. Silver MT, Sterns LD, Piccini JP, Joung B, Ching CK, Pickett RA, Rabinovich R, Liu S, Peterson BJ, Lexcen DR; Shock-Less Investigators. Heart Rhythm. 2015 Mar;12(3):545-53. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2014.11.002. Epub 2014 Nov 7
  • A Brugada syndrome proband with compound heterozygote SCN5A mutations identified from a Chinese family in Singapore. Tan BY, Yong RY, Barajas-Martinez H, Dumaine R, Chew YX, Wasan PS, Ching CK, Ho KL, Gan LS, Morin N, Chong AP, Yap SH, Neo JL, Yap EP, Moochhala S, Chong DT, Chow W, Seow SC, Hu D, Uttamchandani M, Teo WS. Europace. 2015 Mar 31. pii: euv058
  • Improve the prevention of sudden cardiac arrest in emerging countries: the Improve SCA clinical study design. Zhang S, Singh B, Rodriguez DA, Chasnoits AR, Hussin A, Ching CK, Huang D, Liu YB, Cerkvenik J, Willey S, Kim YH.Europace. 2015 Jun 1. pii: euv103.
  • Prevalence and Risk Factors of Atrial Fibrillation in Chinese Elderly: Results from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Chei CL, Raman P, Ching CK, Yin ZX, Shi XM, Zeng Y, Matchar DB. Chin Med J (Engl). 2015 20th Sep;128(18):2426-2432
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome Chapter Collaborators. Welsford M, Nikolaou NI, Beygui F, Bossaert L, Ghaemmaghami C, Nonogi H, O'Connor RE, Pichel DR, Scott T, Walters DL, Woolfrey KG. Circulation. 2015 Oct 20;132(16 Suppl 1):S146-76
  • Part 5: Acute coronary syndromes: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Nikolaou NI, Welsford M, Beygui F, Bossaert L, Ghaemmaghami C, Nonogi H, O'Connor RE, Pichel DR, Scott T, Walters DL, Woolfrey KG; Acute Coronary Syndrome Chapter Collaborators. Resuscitation. 2015 Oct;95:e121-46
  • Initial experience of subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillators in Singapore: a case series and review of the literature. Lim TS, Tan BY, Ho KL, Lim CY, Teo WS, Ching CK. Singapore Med J. 2015 Oct;56 (10):580-5.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia with Ventriculoatrial Block and QRS Duration Shortening: What is the Mechanism? Lim PC, Chong DT, Tan BY, Ho KL, Teo WS, Ching CK. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2015 Nov 10.
  • Non-fluoroscopic navigation systems for radiofrequency catheter ablation for supraventricular tachycardia reduce ionising radiation exposure. See J, Amora JL, Lee S, Lim P, Teo WS, Tan BY, Ho KL, Lee CW, Ching CK. Singapore Med J. 2016 Jul;57(7):390-5. doi: 10.11622/smedj.2016017. Epub 2016 Jan 25
  • First clinical experience of the safety and feasibility of total subcutaneous implantable defibrillator in an Asian population. Hai JJ, Lim ET, Chan CP, Chan YS, Chan KK, Chong D, Ho KL, Tan BY, Teo WS, Ching CK, Tse HF. Europace. 2015 Oct;17 Suppl 2:ii63-8. doi: 10.1093/europace/euv144.
  • Association of Age, Sex, Body Size and Ethnicity with Electrocardiographic Values in Community-based Older Asian Adults. Tan ES, Yap J, Xu CF, Feng L, Nyunt SZ, Santhanakrishnan R, Chan MM, Seow SC, Ching CK, Yeo KK, Richards AM, Ng TP, Lim TW, Lam CS. Heart Lung Circ. 2016 Jul;25(7):705-11. doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2016.01.015. Epub 2016 Feb 16.
  • A Narrow QRS Tachycardia-What Is the Diagnosis? Lee PT, Lim PC, Ching CK. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2016 Jul;39(7):765-7. doi: 10.1111/pace.12848. Epub 2016 Apr 6
  • Patient barriers to implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Chan LL, Lim CP, Aung ST, Quetua P, Ho KL, Chong D, Teo WS, Sim D, Ching CK. Singapore Med J. 2016 Apr;57(4):182-7. doi: 10.11622/smedj.2016072.
  • Remote monitoring of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices: a Southeast Asian, single-centre pilot study. Lim PC, Lee AS, Chua KC, Lim ET, Chong DT, Tan BY, Ho KL, Teo WS, Ching CK. Singapore Med J. 2016 Jul;57(7):372-7. doi: 10.11622/smedj.2016120
  • The Sex, Age, Medical History, Treatment, Tobacco Use, Race Risk (SAMe TT2R2) Score Predicts Warfarin Control in a Singaporean Population. Bernaitis N, Ching CK, Chen L, Hon JS, Teo SC, Davey AK, Anoopkumar-Dukie S. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2017 Jan;26(1):64-69.
  • Wenckebach pattern in right bundle branch block - benign or not? Huang W, Lim PC, Ching CK. J Electrocardiol. 2017 Mar - Apr;50(2):223-226. 
  • Remote magnetic catheter navigation versus conventional ablation in atrial fibrillation ablation: Fluoroscopy reduction. Lim PCY, Toh JJH, Loh JKXY, Lee ECY, Chong DTT, Tan BY, Ho KL, Ching CK, Teo WS. J Arrhythm. 2017 Jun;33(3):167-171. doi: 10.1016/j.joa.2016.08.007. Epub 2016 Nov 10

Research Trials