Primary brain cancers are cancer that originates from the brain cells, generally named after the tissue which they originate from. Majority are glima arising from glial cells in the brain. These include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas and mixed cell type gliomas. The other forms of brain cancers are meningiomas, medulloblastomas, chordomas and central nervous system lymphomas.
Adults with brain cancers can present with fits or seizures. Other signs and symptoms that suggest increased pressure within the skull include persistent headaches associated with vomiting and double vision. Pressure builds up within the skull because the skull is a bony structure that cannot expand. A cancer growing within the brain inside the skull causes pressure to increase. Other patients may develop weakness and/or numbness of one side of their body that is similar to a stroke.
Computerised Tomography scans (CT) and magnetic resonance scans (MRI) of the brain are able to detect most brain cancers. These scans may also determine if there is increased pressure within the skull. The exact type of cancer will be determined after a biopsy of the cancer. Sometimes, because of the position of the cancer, a biopsy is not attempted because the risk of causing damage to neighbouring important structures is very high.
Surgery reduces the amount of cancerous brain cells and also provides the pathologist (a doctor who looks at tissues under the microscope) with tissue to diagnose the exact type of brain cancer. Patients who have increased pressure within the skull because of the brain cancer sometimes need Surgery to decompress the tumour and relieve the intracranial pressure.
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